RESERVOIR-ANALOG MODELING OF FOCUSED-FLOWAND DISPERSED-FLOW DEEP-WATER CARBONATES: MIOCENE AGUA AMARGA BASIN, SOUTHEAST SPAIN
RACHEL A. DVORETSKY
Chevron Energy Technology Company, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, USA
ROBERT H. GOLDSTEIN, EVAN K. FRANSEEN
Kansas Interdisciplinary Carbonates Consortium (KICC), Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Lindley
Hall, 1475 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA
ALAN P. BYRNES
C12 Energy Inc., 1900 Wazee Avenue, Suite 200, Denver, Colorado 80202, USA
ABSTRACT: Outcrop-based, reservoir-analog models are important tools for assessing reservoir potential and efficient schemes for exploitation in the subsurface. A new outcrop reservoir-analog model is documented herein for Upper Miocene deep-water sediment-gravity-flow and hemipelagic deposits within the Agua Amarga basin, southeast Spain. This study demonstrates that large volumes of resedimented deposits exhibiting high ratios of potential reservoir to baffle facies (net to gross) accumulate where funneling topographic features focus sediment-gravity flows from the long linear dimension of a carbonate platform into a confined channel (focused flow). Where topographic funneling features are absent, and where a short linear dimension of the carbonate platform margin is available as a source of sediment-gravity flows, deposits accumulate with lower volumes and high proportions of baffle facies (dispersed flow).
Extensive outcrops in the Agua Amarga basin allow for characterization of facies and facies architecture using measured sections, photomosaics, and core-plug petrophysical data. Petrae and Petrele were used for correlation, data integration, and static geomodeling to create a reservoir-analog model that synthesized geological observations noted in outcrop. Facies modeled as reservoir units consist of graded fine- to very coarse-grained skeletal packstones and fine- to very coarse-grained breccias. Graded skeletal packstone facies exhibit a mean porosity and corresponding permeability of 30.5% and 136 mD; breccia facies exhibit a mean porosity and corresponding permeability of 30% and 65 mD. Facies modeled as baffle units consist of foraminiferal, volcaniclastic foraminiferal, and skeletal foraminiferal wacke–packstones. These planktonic foraminifera-rich facies exhibit a mean porosity and corresponding permeability of 36% and 12 mD.
Paleotopography, in conjunction with sea-level history, largely controls the geometry, lateral continuity, and volume of a given reservoir body. Paleotopographic differences that lead to focused flow versus dispersed flow result in markedly different reservoir properties. Static model volumetric results reveal that compared to the dispersed-flow system, deposits within the focused-flow system have greater reservoir to baffle facies volume ratios (0.70 compared to 0.09), and greater reservoir facies bulk volumes (46.5 million m3 compared to 18.6 million m3). Further, the ratio of reservoir facies bulk volume to linear dimension of the shelf margin supplying both the focused-flow and dispersed-flow systems is similar, suggesting that deep-water reservoir volume may be predictable on the basis of the linear dimension of the shelf margin. Finally, interrogating modeled reservoir facies for different connected volume scenarios offers significant insight relevant to subsurface exploitation strategy and supports observations noted in the field.
KEY WORDS: carbonate stratigraphy, outcrop-analog modeling, sediment-gravity flow, deep-water, slope
Dvoretsky RA, Goldstein RH, Franseen EK, Byrnes AP. Reservoir-analog modeling of focused-flow and dispersed-flow deep-water carbonates: Miocene Agua Amarga Basin, southeast Spain. In Verwer K, Playton TE, Harris PM (Editors). Deposits, Architecture, and Controls of Carbonate Margin, Slope, and Basinal Settings, Special Publication 105: SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, OK. doi: 10.2110/sepmsp.105.08.